In this single-center study, researchers identified 342 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma who underwent collection of peripheral blood stem cells in anticipation of a delayed autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at the occurrence of first disease relapse.
Of these patients, 176 (51%) had not proceeded to a delayed HCT at the time of the study analysis, with the most common reason being patients did not experience relapse after first-line therapy (53%; n=94).
However, 11% (n=37) of the 342 patients who planned for a delayed transplant were unable to undergo transplantation at disease relapse. Developing new comorbid conditions, decline in performance status and rapid disease progression contributed to patients becoming ineligible for HCT. These patients had a significantly lower overall survival compared to a control group of patients with multiple myeloma who underwent an upfront autologous transplant: 80 vs. 112 months, respectively (p=0.011).
The researchers concluded that their study “provides valuable data for patients and care providers to take into consideration when deciding on whether to pursue an upfront or a delayed autologous HCT.”