A first salvage therapy combining azacitidine (AZA) with donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) in relapsed transplant recipients has a 30% response rate, according to results of a recent study. This multicenter study of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n=28) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS; n=2) had a treatment schedule of up to eight cycles of AZA followed by DLI after every second AZA cycle. A median of three AZA courses were administered, and 22 patients (73%) received DLI. Overall response rate was 30%: seven complete remissions (23%) and two partial remissions (7%). The authors conclude that AZA and DLI can induce long-term remissions and can be a suitable salvage therapy for patients with AML or MDS relapsing after allogeneic HCT.