AZA, DLI Effective Therapy for MDS, AML with Low Disease Burden

Results of a multicenter analysis have found that azacitidine (AZA) and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) can be a successful therapy for relapse after allogeneic HCT. In this retrospective study of 154 patients with AML (n=124), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=28), and myeloproliferative syndrome (n=2), all patients received a median number of 4 courses of AZA (range, 4-14) and 68% (n=105) of patients received a median of 2 DLI (range, 1-7). MDS patients had a significantly higher 2-year overall survival (OS) compared to AML patients: 66% vs. 26%, respectively (p=0.001). Two-year OS rate was significantly higher in AML patients with a molecular only relapse vs. those with hematological relapse: 69% vs. 19%, respectively (p<0.001). The researchers conclude the combination of AZA and DLI is a “valuable treatment alternative for patients relapsing after HCT, in particular those with MDS or AML with low disease burden.”

Schroeder T, et al. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant

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