In this study comparing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), chemotherapy, and autologous HCT outcomes in 760 patients age 40-60 years with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in CR1, allogeneic HCT had improved 5-year survival compared with chemotherapy: 57% vs. 40%, respectively (p<0.001). Survival was comparable following allogeneic HCT and autologous HCT in patients with intermediate-risk AML (60% vs. 54%), but allogeneic HCT was significantly associated with less relapse (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, p<0.001) and better relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR 0.74, p=0.029) compared to autologous HCT in these patients. The authors concluded that allogeneic HCT is the preferred type of post-remission therapy over chemotherapy in patients with intermediate- and poor-risk AML aged 40-60 years.
Cornelissen JJ, et al. Leukemia