Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at a higher risk than the general population for developing a number of adverse health issues, including heart disease. This multi-center study reports on more than 3,800 adult patients whose baseline health was assessed at the time of HCT between 1970 and 2010 and who were re-assessed via survey in 2016.
Sixty-one percent of the HCT patients responded to the follow-up survey. Median age at the baseline survey was 55.9 years, and the median time since HCT was 10.8 years.
Obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and physical inactivity at baseline were significantly associated with an increased risk for subsequent ischemic heart disease (hazard ratios [HRs] ≥1.8). Greater physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline were associated with subsequent lower overall mortality (HRs ≤0.7).
Study results show that 162 (6.9%) patients reported ischemic heart disease at the baseline survey. Among those without ischemic heart disease at the baseline survey (n=2,198), the 5-year cumulative incidence of subsequent ischemic heart disease was 4.3%.
The researchers concluded that their results “support strong efforts to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors and to treat cardiovascular risk factors aggressively in HCT survivors.”